How does a Hydraulic Piston Pump Work

How does a Hydraulic Piston Pump Work?

In every hydraulic system, a hydraulic system pump plays a very important role. Through reciprocating motion, it is used to suction and pressurize fluid meant for driving machines. Both effective and dependable, they’re necessary in many sectors.

What is a Hydraulic Piston Pump?

A hydraulic piston pump is a kind of reciprocating pump that converts the mechanical energy supplied by motors into pressure energy used to power engineers’ systems. These pumps represent important functional elements of diverse industrial and mechanical operations that demand strict regulation of fluid flow or pressure.

Components of a Hydraulic Piston Pump

Cylinder Block

The cylinder block accommodates several cylinders arranged around the axis (axial piston pump) or in a radial direction (radial piston pump), forming rings. Within each cylinder, there is a piston that reciprocates. The cylinder block is the structural component of its type, which supports pistons and helps to keep alignment between them.

Cylinder Block
Piston

Piston

Pistons are cylinders that move reciprocating within the pumping cylinder. Under the pumping operation, pistons are found in reciprocating suction and compression stages. It is in the suction stroke that the piston moves away from a valve plate and thus creates an area of low pressure that pulls fluid out. During compression stroke, the piston moves inward from the valve plate, which leads to fluid loading and then forcing out due to its compressed state.

Valve Plate

The valve plate is in between the cylinder block and the pistons, controlling both ways fluids go into and out through the ventura. The valve plate features inlet and outlet ports that enable fluid to enter the pump’s interior space via one port before exiting through another. It also has channels or conduits that divert the fluid movement to and from the cylinders as the pistons oscillate.

Valve Plate

Swashplate (Axial Piston Pump)

The swashplate is a slanted plate attached to the rotating shaft of the pump. Using the swashplate adjustment, an active displacement modulation associated with its tilt angle can be achieved. The displacement of pistons is minimal at a low angle in the swashplate, and there will be flow when the fluid flows as little as possible. When the swashplate is positioned at a higher angle, this results in an increment in displacement and, hence, increased fluid flow rates.

Driveshaft (Radial Piston Pump)

The driveshaft transmits the rotation to pistons in a radial pump. In the rotation of the driveshaft, it causes the pistons to return to their cylinders (Radial reciprocity). This motion leads to the development of alternate suction and compression strokes for fluid feeding and compression, respectively. The driveshaft is usually coupled to either a motor or an engine that supplies the necessary power for the operation of the pump.

Driveshaft (Radial Piston Pump)

Working Principles of a Hydraulic Piston Pump

How Axial Piston Pump Works.

Fluid Intake (Suction Stroke)

As soon as the pump is set in motion, the swashplate pinpoints to the minimum displacement angle. Because of the way they move across their cylinders, as the shaft turns, the pistons continue moving up and down with an amount of reciprocity. The piston is pulled from the valve plate, thus creating a low-pressure area inside the cylinder. This low-pressure zone pulls liquid in due to the difference in pressure between the reservoir and the cylinder.

Fluid Compression (Compression Stroke)

As the shaft continues to rotate, the swashplate angle increases as pistons approach the valve plate. This motion restricts the fluid confined within the cylinder block, causing its pressure to rise. The gaseous mixture is then pumped out of the cylinder block through the port.

How Radial Piston Pumps Work

Fluid Intake (Suction Stroke)

In the first instance, as soon as the pump is started up, some pistons move away from the valve plate. With its rotation, the driveshaft makes the initial radical inward movement of pistons, which are directed further towards the valve plate. Within the suction stroke, the fluid flows into hydraulic cylinder chambers from inlet ports incorporated on the valve plate as a result of variable volumes inside.

Fluid Compression (Compression Stroke)

With subsequent and inward movement of the pistons, they gradually lower the volume within these cylinders, which leads to further compression of this fluid. The compressed fluid is thereafter pushed out of the cylinders through opening ports located at the valve plate. The radial piston pumps are virtually continuous if the driveshaft rotates and there is enough volume of fluid inside the reservoir.

Hydraulic piston pumps have become universal elements of hydraulically-based systems used by many industries. They contribute significantly to the powering of machinery and equipment, which are a vital need in contemporary operations due to their ease of operability coupled with high pressures.

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