Hydraulic Vane Pump

Understanding Hydraulic Vane Pump – Your Ultimate Guide

Introduction to Hydraulic Vane Pumps

Hydraulic vane pumps are ubiquitous across different industries. Its importance can be seen in various industrial applications such as powering heavy machines and efficient factory operations. In this article, we will discuss what is a hydraulic vane pump, its different types, benefits, limitations, how it creates pressure and signs that they are failing. So, scroll down and keep reading to learn more!

What is a Hydraulic Vane Pump

Hydraulic vane pumps are the most versatile among the different types of pumps. It can be used for oil, water, and other fluid types. Air can also be transported in a system using a hydraulic vane pump.

These pumps belong to positive displacement pumps. It is also quiet to use compared to piston and gear pumps.

Hydraulic vane pumps are more tolerant to the viscosity and type of fluid, making them more reliable to use.

Introducing Hydraulic Vane Pump
Hydraulic Vane Pump Applications

Hydraulic Vane Pump Applications

These pumps are widely used in different industrial applications such as

  • material handling
  • machine tooling

HVPs are also ideal for high pressure applications and uses multi-stage pump. You can also see it in any low pressure applications that uses a single-stage pump only.

How Hydraulic Vane Pump Works?

A hydraulic vane pump works by forcing a hydraulic fluid such as oil or water into a smaller area to create pressure. This process is executed with the help of an off-centered drive shaft, discharge holes, inlet holes, and sliding vanes.

The atmospheric pressure in the reservoir causes the fluid to enter the pump through the inlet holes. Then, the fluid is trapped between two vanes that are attached to a driveshaft inside the pump chamber. It can create a seal once the vanes are pressed against the outer wall of the chamber.

The drive shaft is positioned off-center to the pump chamber. When the drive shaft rotates, the external wall of the chamber presses the vanes. Therefore, creating a smaller space between them. The space reduction will result in increased fluid pressure. When the pressure reaches its peak, the fluid is pushed out of the pump on the opposite side of the chamber.

Different Types of Hydraulic Vane Pumps

Unbalanced Fixed Displacement hydraulic vane pump
Unbalanced Fixed Displacement

This hydraulic vane pump is integrated with a rotor in an off-center position.

When the off-center rotor rotates, a centrifugal force is created. This force allows the vanes out of the external circular ring.

When it turns, the chambers are filled with fluid. Then, it will also reduce to removal of all fluid.

Balance Fixed Displacement hydraulic vane pump
Balance Fixed Displacement

It basically works the same as the one above.

However, their difference is that a balanced fixed displacement hydraulic vane pump does not work with a circular ring but an elliptical one.

This pump also has two outlets and inlets. This allows the shaft to experience a balanced side force.

Variable Displacement hydraulic vane pump
Variable Displacement

This pump also uses a circular ring that is adjustable to increase or decrease the fluid flow.


hydraulic vane pump


Hydraulic vane pumps is capable of accommodating various fluid viscosity. It can be used for different fluids including alcohols, solvents, water, refrigeration fluids, oil, aerosols, lubricants, fuels, and more.

Easy to Maintain

The inner system of a hydraulic vane pump has less direct contact with metal components. It is also well-lubricated by the fluid. This characteristic of the vane pump makes it easy to maintain. Only the vane is susceptible to wear and tear. However, replacing it is an easy and cost-effective process.

Low Noise

Higher levels of noise in a workplace can be a potential hazard. Fortunately, hydraulic vane pumps have a low-noise operation. Therefore, using these pumps can contribute to a comfortable working environment.


A hydraulic vane pump can last for many years or even a lifetime if properly used and maintained.


hydraulic vane pump

Like other components, a hydraulic vane pump also has its limitations and disadvantages. One disadvantage of this pump is it cannot be used for fluids with very high viscosity levels. It also cannot accommodate abrasive or extremely high-pressurized fluids.

Why do hydraulic vane pumps sometimes fail to operate?

One reason is a dirty fluid. Even if you have constructed your vane pump properly but also allow abrasive or dirty fluid to flow, your vane pump will still most likely fail to operate. According to industry experts, 80% of failed vane pumps are caused by dirty fluids. This will also affect other components of the pump such as the rotor.

To prevent this problem from occurring, you have to ensure that the fluid flowing in the system is cleaned by installing a contamination control device. Installing a filtration system should be done since the new fluid is not 100% guaranteed clean.

You can also perform a regular quality checking of the system. Conducting a purity check on your fluid is also important especially if the distributor mishandled them.

A new machine will not guarantee the fluid’s cleanliness. Sometimes, fluid contamination is caused by the machine itself. Therefore, you need to clean your hydraulic vane pump regularly before using it. This will allow you to prevent contamination of the machine and its parts.

Cleaning the pump, performing quality control, and installing a filtration system can make your hydraulic vane pump last longer. This will also allow you to have a continuous operation. Thus, allowing your productivity to increase by preventing production from shutting down due to pump failure. This will also allow you to save costs from frequent repairs.

What common hydraulic vane pump issue may occur?

The most common issue that may occur in a hydraulic vane pump is cavitation damage. You can know that cavitation occurs if you see the pump’s fluid with small air bubbles. It seems not a problem at first. But it can cause bigger damage to your pump if not treated earlier.

These tiny air bubbles in the fluid can produce extremely high heat. Extreme temperatures can make the fluid less effective. The pressure and temperature are also imbalanced may result in wear and tear of the pump component.

If cavitation happens, hydraulic fluid will lose its capability to lubricate the components of a hydraulic vane pump. This will also result in contamination and metal chips. Other parts can also be affected and the damage can get worse.

Cavitation is caused by air intrusion conditions including low oil levels, too high a reservoir inlet, inadequate sealing, and more. It is also caused by extreme pressure and force on the fluid.

To prevent cavitation, the velocity of your inlet must be at an optimal level. Also, check the filtration system if they are clogged, any restriction on fluid flowing, and if the system is used at the recommended rpm level.

How to Know if Your Hydraulic Vane Pump is Failing?

hydraulic vane pump


Hydraulic vane pumps are generally low-noise machines. If it becomes noisy when operating, it is experiencing some problems. When the noise comes from inside the pump, the pressure inside may be low. Loud noise manifests that your machine has extreme damage. So, if you hear unusual noise from the machine, it indicates that it has something wrong going on.

External leakage

If your hydraulic vane pump has an external leakage, which indicates that there are problems with its sealing. External leakage can also be caused by a bent rod.

Extreme heat and low-performance level

If your hydraulic vane pump is less efficient during operation, the pressure suddenly drops, and excessive heat, bring your machine to a professional technician for a check-up.

Due to its high-speed operation, damage of these pumps can quickly worsen if not treated early. Being alert to its sign of failing can help prevent great damage.


In summary, hydraulic vane pumps are efficient and a reliable source of hydraulic power for any industrial applications. These are used in different applications such as low or high-pressure. It offers several benefits. However, just like any other component, it also has limitations. Checking and knowing its signs of failing may prevent the damage from worsening.

Get in Touch With Us Now
Upload File
AddressDinghai Road 66#, Zhenhai, Ningbo, Zhejiang, China
Update cookies preferences
Scroll to Top